Nac Mac Vegan: adventures in rabbit food

24/12/2010

Savoury Strudel

I was attempting to make apple strudel last night and had five sheets of pastry left over. I was also hungry, so decided to experiment and make a mushroom strudel. Except I only had three mushrooms left, so had to add the potatoes.

5 sheets filo pastry, defrosted.
at least a cup vegetable ghee
Approximately a dozen small new potatoes
3 mushrooms
1 small onion
3 cloves garlic, or to taste
¼ cup ground almonds
2 tbl sesame seed
2 tbl olive oil
1 tbl flour
1 cup vegetable stock
Ground black pepper to taste

Preheat your oven to 180°C, maybe 200°C if not fan-assisted.

Slice the potatoes very thinly and parboil. Set to one side.

Slice the mushrooms and onion thinly. Crush or chop the garlic finely. Heat the olive oil in a frying pan and gently fry the mushrooms, onion and garlic for a few minutes. Add the ground almonds and the flour and fry for a minute or so more or until the flour darkens. Turn the heat down, and gradually add the stock, stirring all the time, until you get a thick creamy sauce. Bring to the boil – it should thicken slightly – then add the cooked potatoes and black pepper to taste and set to one side.

Melt the ghee in a small saucepan and leave on the lowest heat.

Place a clean tea towel on a flat surface. Put the first sheet of filo on top of this and brush it all over with the melted ghee. Place your next sheet of filo on top of this and repeat, until all the sheets of filo are used up. Sprinkle about 1½ tablespoons of sesame seed all over the top sheet. Allowing about 5cm (2″) at the end, and about half that at the edges, spread the filling in a rectangle at one narrow end of your pastry. It should cover about a third to a half of the surface area. Using the tea towel like a sushi mat, lift up the narrow end and gently roll the pastry into a large Swiss roll. Place onto a greased baking sheet with the “join” underneath.

Brush the top with more melted ghee and sprinkle over the remaining sesame seeds. Place in the oven and bake for 20 minutes, or until it is nicely browned. Don’t forget to switch off the heat under the remaining ghee!

Notes
I used vegetable ghee for this, but you could use a baking margarine. The fat level is important to make this recipe work, so it needs to be a hard margarine such as Tomor Hard Block. I liked how this recipe turned out, but am thinking of experimenting with olive oil next time. To slightly reduce the fat content, the top could be brushed with soya milk instead of ghee.

Use a flavoursome stock. I used a Kosher parve beef-style consommé, sprinkled onto the sauce at the boil, and stirred in. I would also have used more mushrooms and fewer potatoes, but that’s what I had.

26/09/2009

Nut Rissoles with savoury rice

Filed under: Historic — Tags: , , , , — Feòrag @ 16:57

Last night I made a couple of dishes from Rupert H. Wheldon’s No Animal Food. First published around 1910, this was the first book to advocate veganism and it contains 100 recipes at the back. The ones I tried last night were:

12.–Nut Rissoles
3 ozs. mixed grated nuts, 3 ozs. breadcrumbs, 1 oz. nut butter, 1 chopped onion, 1 large cupful canned tomatoes.
Mix ingredients together; mould into rissoles, dust with flour and fry in ‘Nutter.’ Serve with gravy.

28.–Plain Savoury Rice
4 ozs. unpolished rice, 1 lb. tin tomatoes.
Boil together until rice is cooked. If double boiler be used no water need be added, and thus the rice will be dry and not pultaceous.

My versions:

Nut Rissoles
1 cup mixed nuts, chopped in food processor
breadcrumbs made from 1 slice wholemeal bread
2 tbsp vegan margarine
1 chopped onion
1 can tomatoes, blended.

Mix the nuts, breadcrumbs and onions together in a large bowl. Melt the margarine and add it. Use your hands to mix it all together and add just enough tomato to bind it. Make into four burgers. Dust with flour and fry slowly – they’ll burn if you’re not careful.

Plain Savoury Rice
1 cup long-grain brown rice
the remains of the tomatoes from the nut rissoles
enough water to make 2 cups liquid

Bung all of the above into your favourite rice pan. Bring to the boil and simmer, with the lid on tightly, until all the liquid is absorbed. Remove the lid, stir quickly with a fork, then replace the lid and let it sit, off the heat, for a couple of minutes or until you need it. Alternatively, put the ingredients in your rice cooker, and cook according to the instructions.

I served all of the above with my mushroom gravy, and can recommend both recipes. The rice, especially, was delicious, even though it’s so simple.

I’ve visited the Nut Rissoles before.

22/07/2009

What I had for lunch

Filed under: Products, Recipes and techniques — Tags: , , , , , — Feòrag @ 16:56
Nut cutlet, roast asparagus and pineapple salsa

Nut cutlet, roast asparagus and pineapple salsa

Today’s lunch was made very quickly using a grill pan. The main protein was a Goodlife Nut Cutlet, which is really best done on a George Foreman-type grill (but you will be horrified when you see what comes out in the oil tray). This takes by far the longest time to cook, and went on first.

Next to that, I placed 8 narrow spears of asparagus. I love asparagus, but like to keep it as a special treat for when it’s in season, but my partner decided I needed a special treat anyway and bought me some regardless. When they were done, I moved them to the lowest part of the pan (our kitchen does not appear to be level) and braised them in a splash of sake before serving.

The pineapple salsa was based on a recipe in the June edition of Waitrose New – a free magazine produced by the supermarket to emphasise seasonal and new products. It uses their Organic Sugar Loaf Pineapple, which contributes to the Waitrose Foundation, a scheme which (according to Waitrose) complements Fairtrade whereby they put a proportion of profits into projects which improve the lives of the producers.

My version of the Spicy Pineapple Salsa (I’m not sure why they call it a salsa) recipe is incredibly simple:

200g pineapple, cut into large chunks
a few tiny chillies, rehydrated and chopped
1 tsp coriander leaf (frozen, in this case)

Grill the pineapple on a high heat in a grill pan, until nicely brown in places. Mix with the chilli and coriander. Serve.

The Waitrose version included palm sugar, but I can’t see why as it comes out more than sweet enough without it.

30/05/2009

Early 20th century nutmeats revisited

Filed under: Gadgets, Historic — Tags: , , — Feòrag @ 22:50

I first experimented with making my own nutmeats over four years ago, and wrote up my experiences. I based my recipes on those given in Evora Buckram Perkins’s Laurel Health Cookery. It was a bit of a palaver, and at the time I commented:

It is easier to buy a tin of Nuttolene, but this is a useful recipe to know in case of drought.

Well, it has come to pass that there is a Nuttolene drought. Goodness Direct claims to have it in stock, but I haven’t seen it in the shops for over a year now. The customer comments over on that site hint at discontinuation after 105 years in production – it was invented, as a paté, by Dr. Kellogg himself, and went on sale in late 1904. I’m not sure when it turned into the more solid product I’ve been craving, but the difference seems to be simply the amount of water used.

Since my efforts four years ago, I have acquired a number of gadgets that might make the task easier. Firstly, I have just bought a pair of mug-shaped, loose bottomed cake tins, with a capacity of just over 1.5 cups each. I don’t know what they were intended for, but they struck me as just the right shape for nutmeats. I also have a 600w Braun hand blender, with a large liquidiser attachment, and a Kenwood Major with the meat mincer attachment, the latter serving perfectly well as a nut mill. All of these, in addition to the pressure cooker, should make the task easier than in 2004, and considerably easier than in 1911!

The only change I’ve made to the recipes I used in 2004 is to reduce the amount of water in the Nutmese (the Nuttolene-type nutmeat). The quantities given fit nicely into one of the tins mentioned above. For the record, here they are:

Nutmese

½ cup raw peanuts
1 cup cooked peanuts (see below)
a tiny smidgen of salt (very optional)
approx ¼ cup water.

Put the cooked and raw nuts into a blender and grind together. Add salt and water, and grind some more till it’s smooth. Put into a greased tin, and cover with grease aluminium foil. Steam for at least 2 hours in a pressure cooker.

Wrapped up and ready to steam

Wrapped up and ready to steam


Trumese (Protose-type nutmeat)

½ cup peanuts, cooked
½ cup blanched peanuts (be lazy, buy them ready-blanched)
½ cup vital wheat gluten flour
½ cup water
1 tsp cereal coffee (see note below)

Grind up the peanuts as for Nutmese. Add the wheat gluten and blend a bit more, then add the water and cereal coffee and blend until it turns into a dough, like a slightly heavy bread dough. Put into tins and steam as above.

I had expected to need to mix this up by hand and run it through the mincer a few times, but the Braun hand blender can just about handle this amount of dough. If I made a double quantity, I’d have to use the Major.

Cooking peanuts
Peanuts take about 80-90 minutes to cook in a pressure cooker. I made up a large batch and have frozen the leftovers. Cooked peanuts look like pinto beans, so labelling might be important.

Cereal Coffee
I found it very difficult to get hold of a cereal coffee that did not contain chicory (which would taste foul). I used Yorzo Instant Original from Lima Foods, which is made entirely from roasted barley and nothing else. I’m thinking that a tablespoon full of shoyu, and a reduction in the amount of water used, would be a good alternative.

The finished nutmeats - Nutmese on the left and Trumese on the right.

The finished nutmeats - Nutmese on the left and Trumese on the right.

They came out of their tins pretty easily. Some water got into the Nutmese, making it more like the original paté, but the Trumese came out beautifully – it’s good and solid. I will experiment with using as little water as possible in the Nutmese, but really I’d rather be able to go just up the road and pick up a tin or two of Nuttolene.

Update: the Nutmese solidified considerably on cooling.

22/02/2009

1913 Nut Galantine

Filed under: Experiments, Historic — Tags: , , — Feòrag @ 19:32
The cover of Sidney H. Beard's "A Comprehensive Guide-Book to Natural, Hygienic, and Humane Diet"

The cover of the book from which this recipe was taken

Sidney H. Beard’s A Comprehensive Guide-book to Natural, Hygienic, and Humane Diet was published in 1913 by an organisation called The Order of the Golden Age (note this site uses Javascript menus which do not actually work!), an explicitly religious vegetarian group. Although basically Christian, the influence of Spiritualism and Theosophy is apparent in the Order’s publications. My copy of this book is currently working its way through Distributed Proofreaders (assuming there was a back-up!) and will hopefully appear on Project Gutenberg soon.

This recipe is rather oddly named. Your actual galantine is a deboned bird rolled around a stuffing, poached, allowed to cook and then decorated and coated in aspic. Beard’s galantine is a nut and pasta roast, which he recommends be served cold with a salad, though he also regards it as being good warm. His original recipe isn’t vegan, but is trivially made so:

Take ½-lb, ground walnuts, ¼-lb. cooked spaghetti, 2 onions, 1 small tomato, 1-oz. butter, 1 dessertspoonful of Carnos, a little stock, pepper and salt to taste. Fry the onions and tomato in the butter, and then add the other ingredients and simmer for 15 minutes. Put into a greased mould, cover with a greased paper, and bake in a slow oven for 1 hour. Turn out when cold and serve with salad and Mayonnaise sauce. This dish may be served hot as a roast with red currant jelly and browned potatoes.

The observant will note that there is just not quite enough information there! How should I cut the onions and tomatoes? What size and type of mould do I need? What is a “slow oven” anyway? What’s Carnos? That last question is straightforward—it was a fake meat extract and can be replaced with yeast extract. For the others, I made an educated guess and this is what I came up with:

Ingredients
225g mixed nuts (I had no walnuts on their own)
100-125g pasta (any sort – I used wholemeal macaroni)
2 onions
1 small tomato
a generous forkful of vegan margarine
2 tsp Marmite
approximately ¾ cup water
a big pinch of stock powder
black pepper

Method
Cook the pasta until al dente according to the instructions on the packet. While this is cooking, grind the nuts finely, and cut the onions and tomatoes into 1cm dice. Drain the pasta when ready and put to one side.

Turn on your oven and start to pre-heat to 150°C. Heat up the margarine slowly in a large frying pan and put in the onions and tomatoes. Fry until they are nice and soft then add the cooked pasta, ground nuts, Marmite, water and stock powder. You might find it easier (i.e. I should have done this) to boil the water and dissolve the Marmite and stock powder in it first, before adding the mixture to the pan. Grind as much black pepper as you like into it, and then simmer for 15 minutes.

Grease a 1 Kg loaf tin (I think this is a 2lb loaf tin in old money), pausing to moan at your partner who put it away whilst still wet, causing a rust patch to form. Put the mixture in the loaf tin and cover with greased paper—Waitrose’s own brand baking parchment is siliconised, and doesn’t need greasing. The oven should have heated up by now, so put it in and try to ignore it for an hour.

Not the prettiest of dishes, but it tasted good.

Not the prettiest of dishes, but it tasted good.

Results
It felt quite soft when it came out of the oven, but firmed up a little as it cooled down. It crumbled a little when I got it out of the tin, mostly in the form of pieces of pasta. It wasn’t very photogenic, but I took pictures anyway! It does not slice easily when warm, and I would consider preparing it as individual portions if making it as a roast. The outside was dark brown and crisp, the inside paler and softer. It tasted good though, the pasta giving it a bizarre, slightly chewy texture. A solid, satisfying winter dish which would go well with any sort of vegetable, though a sauce is necessary—I had potatoes and peppers in a simple white sauce, but a tomato sauce, or a gravy would go well.

19/02/2009

Historic veganism

Filed under: Historic — Tags: , , — Feòrag @ 20:13

Another catch-up post, here’s a list of vegan recipes from old cookbooks which I have posted before.

  • Brazil Nut Soup (1913)
  • I’ve also started putting together a link-list to old vegetarian cookbooks and related publications which have appeared online. This will be an ongoing project!

    02/10/2008

    Nut Rissoles from the first ever vegan cookbook

    Filed under: Historic — Tags: , , — Feòrag @ 17:04

    I’ve just received notification that a book I put through Distributed Proofreaders has been posted to Project Gutenberg. The book is No Animal Food, by Rupert H. Wheldon. Published in London in 1910, it is recognised as being the first ever book on veganism. It consists of several chapters explaining why food derived from animals is unnecessary and undesirable, discussion of nutritional issues, and a collection of 100 recipes. The notification has reached me early (it’s not showing on the PG site, and even my PGDP Project Management page still thinks it’s in post-processing), but you should be able to download it from PG very soon. For now, here’s a simple recipe that should be easily made in the modern kitchen:

    Nut Rissoles
    3ozs. mixed grated nuts, 3 ozs breadcrumbs, 1 oz. nut butter, 1 chopped onion, 1 large cupful canned tomatoes.

    Mix ingredients together; mould into rissoles, dust with flour and fry in ‘Nutter’. Serve with gravy.

    Note: Nutter was a solid vegetable fat. Just use oil, or grill them. 1 oz is about 25g.

    This is the 8th book relating to vegetarianism which I’ve guided through Distributed Proofreaders, and I’ve hardly touched on my ever-growing collection of old veggie cookbooks. I currently have Mrs. Bowdich’s New Vegetarian Dishes and Sydney H. Beard’s A Comprehensive Guide-Book to Natural, Hygienic and Humane Diet being proofread and formatted by volunteers on the site; E.G. Fulton’s The Vegetarian Cook Book is waiting in the queue and I have one more book which has been cleared and which I need to scan.

    Update: I have recently made this recipe, and it’s a fantastic, basic nut burger. The tomatoes should be added gradually until the rissoles hold together – you won’t need as much as is specified. Recommmended.

    06/01/2007

    Bryngoleu Stewed Nuttose

    Filed under: Historic — Tags: , , , , — Feòrag @ 13:29

    The most recent addition to my collection of old vegetarian cookbooks is The Bryngoleu Cookery Book by Lily L. Allen, published in England in 1906. It focuses around menus, rather than catergorised recipes, and today’s lunch was based on one part of one course of one of the dinner menus (they didn’t half eat a lot back then!). I had to veganise part of it, as you will see

    First, the original:

    A delicious stew can be made thus:—Run some walnuts through the nut mill and brown them in butter in a saucepan, add a grated onion, half a tin of tomato rubbed through a sieve, and vegetable stock to make a thick gravy. Add pieces of cooked Nuttose or other nut meat and, last of all—about twenty minutes before serving, some forcemeat balls prepared from bread-crumbs, parsley, sweet herbs, lemon-peel, seasoning, butter reduced to oil and one egg to bind. The balls must be fried in butter before they are added to the stew.

    And now, my modernised, vegan version.

    Stew
    A handful of walnuts, chopped
    1 small onion, chopped
    1 400g tin chopped tomatoes with basil
    The remains of a tin of Nuttolene (about 1/3 of a tin)
    Vegetable stock powder
    Olive oil for frying

    Fry the walnuts and onion in olive oil until the nuts start to brown. Add the tinned tomatoes and the vegetable stock powder, and simmer. Make the balls (see below). If it begins to stick, or get too thick, add a splash of water. When the balls are ready, add the Nuttolene and the balls, and stew another 10 minutes or so. The sauce should be dark and thick.

    Balls
    1 thin slice wholemeal bread, beginning to go a bit stale.
    1 tbl olive oil
    1 tbl wholemeal flour
    water to bind.
    Herbs to taste
    Yuzu (Japanese citron peel seasoning)

    Turn the bread into breadcrumbs using a Swiss chopper, food processor etc. Add the flour and herbs, then rub in the olive oil. Add just enough water to bind it and form into four small flattened balls. Fry the balls slowly in olive oil until nice and golden. Add them to the stew to finish.

    This served one as a complete meal. Originally it was served with Yorkshire pudding, cabbage and potatoes as part of a substantial three course meal – in that circumstance, it would be two generous portions at least.

    08/02/2006

    Brazil Nut Soup

    Filed under: Historic — Tags: , , , , — Feòrag @ 12:47

    This recipe is from A Comprehensive Guide-Book to Natural, Hygienic, and Humane Diet by Sydney H. Beard, published in 1913 by the Order of the Golden Age. The book is currently being OCRed so I can put it through Distributed Proofreaders and into Project Gutenberg. The soup is extremely filling and warming – excellent for winter – and would make a good base for creamy soups.

    The original recipe reads: Pass 1 pint of shelled Brazil nuts through a nut mill, fry these with one or two chopped onions in 1-oz of nut butter, keeping them a pale yellow colour; add 1-oz flour, and gradually 1½-pints white stock; bring slowly to the boil and simmer gently until the onions are soft. Pass through a hair sieve, and dilute with milk.

    Now, nut butters at this point meant solidified nut oil, used as a replacement for butter. White stock was a pale stock made from haricot beans. This is a British book, so a pint is 568ml or 20 fluid ounces.

    For my version, I used half a cup of nuts and a spare half onion I had to use up. I grated the nuts finely and fried them with the onion in olive oil. I used a level tablespoon of flour and my usual vegetable stock powder – 1 cup of stock. I did not sieve it, but did give it a quick go with my hand-held blender, and I used soya milk to bring it to a soupy consistency. I got two lunches out of it.

    02/02/2006

    Unity Inn “Eggless loaf”

    Filed under: Historic — Tags: , , — Feòrag @ 19:36

    The Unity Inn, in Kansas City, was run by the Unity School of Christianity and included one of the largest vegetarian cafeterias in the world. The organisation still exists, but is no longer committed to vegetarianism. The Unity Inn Vegetarian Cook Book (A Collection of Practical Suggestions and Receipts for the Preparation of Non-Flesh Foods in Palatable and Attractive Ways) was published in 1923, and I have a copy in my collection of old veggie cookbooks. Tonight I had a craving for nut roast, so I had a go at making the Eggless Loaf recipe on page 128.

    Original recipe

    1½ cups nuts
    2 cups crumbs
    ½ teaspoon mace
    ¼ teaspoon salt
    1 tablespoon flour
    2 tablespoons oil
    tomato enough to moisten
    vegetable flavoring

    Mix fine browned crumbs, chopped nuts, flour browned in oil, and strained tomato juice. Make into a loaf and bake 1 hour. Serve with dressing or brown gravy.

    My version (makes half as much – enough for a 500g/1lb tin)

    ¾ cup mixed nuts and seeds
    1 cup breadcrumbs
    1 teaspoon vegetable stock powder
    ½ tablespoon flour
    1 tablespoon olive oil
    a tin of chopped tomatoes
    approx 1 teaspoon of herbs and spices to taste.

    Grind the nuts and mix with the breadcrumbs, flour, oil, stock powder and herbs. (I forgot the browning stage – it was nice enough without it though). Open the tin of tomatoes and add them a tablespoon at a time to the mixture until it sticks together. This should need about 5 tablespoonsful. Put in a greased tin or dish and put in a hot oven for about 30-40 minutes. In this case, there were some potatoes roasting in there, so it was 180°C. Use the rest of the tomatoes to make a tomato sauce to serve with it.

    Extra free bonus hint: Adding a couple of tablespoons of a decent quality hot salsa to a tomato sauce is really rather pleasant.

    05/01/2005

    Some old-fashioned nutmeats

    Filed under: Historic — Tags: , , , — Feòrag @ 12:42

    As part of my ongoing project to make old vegetarian cookbooks freely available, I’ve been experimenting with some of the recipes and adapting them for the modern kitchen and the ingredients we have now. One topic that fascinates me is the old nutmeats which were popular before soya products became widely available. The only one of these still widely sold, as far as I can tell, is Nuttolene, produced by Granose in the UK and Nutana in Scandinavia. The Protose currently marketed by Worthington Foods seems to have evolved considerably from the original.

    These recipes make a small amount, just enough to experiment with, but scale up really easily. They are adapted from those given in The Laurel Health Cookery by Evora Bucknum Perkins, and published in 1911.

    Equipment
    A pressure cooker with trivet, steaming basket etc. (not essential, but makes it practical)
    Measuring cups
    A pudding basin and lid, four times the size of your basic measure
    A large mixing bowl
    A food processor would make it much easier, but I don’t have one and use a mortar and pestle and a grinder.

    Trumese

    1/2 cup peanuts, cooked (see notes)
    1/2 cup blanched peanuts (be lazy, buy them ready-blanched)
    1/2 cup vital wheat gluten flour
    1/2 cup water
    1 tsp cereal coffee (see notes)

    Grind the blanched peanuts as fine as you can. If the peanuts are not very oily, add a bit of groundnut oil to make it stick together (or don’t, if you want to keep the oil down).

    Mash the cooked peanuts.

    Combine these two in a bowl and mix in the cereal coffee. Add the wheat gluten flour and mix thoroughly – the best way I’ve found to do this is to “rub it in” as when making pastry. This is where a food processor would be nice.

    Add the water and mix. At this stage, a fork is an excellent tool – keep cutting it through and mixing until you get a spongy, springy dough. I suspect a heavy duty mixer with dough hook would really help here, but I don’t have one of those either.

    Put the mixture into your pudding basin, put the lid on and steam in a pressure cooker on high pressure for between 2 and 4 hours. If you do not have a pressure cooker, the steaming will take 6-12 hours. The original author also suggests “steam 5 hours and bake 1 hour in a very slow oven”. I suspect this recipe could be adapted to a slow cooker, but I do not have one of those to play with.

    This quantity contains approximately 1030 calories, 73g of fat (of which 10g saturated), 84g protein, 36g carbohydrates (6g sugars) and 12.4g dietary fibre. For comparison, the same quantity of firm tofu contains 388 calories, 22.4g fat (3.2g saturated) 40.4g protein, 14.8g carbohydrates (3.2g sugars) and 2g dietary fibre.

    Red Kidney Bean Trumese

    This is probably the easiest of the nutmeats to make, because you can use tinned kidney beans. The recipe and method is the same as for Trumese, but you replace the cooked peanuts with the same quantity of cooked kidney beans. This recipe should work with any other kind of bean or pulse, and I’d be interested in hearing about others’ experiments.

    The quantitiy given contains approximately 850 calories, 36g fat (5g saturated), 108g protein (!), 43g carbohydrates (3g sugars) and 10.7g dietary fibre. This is probably the healthiest of these recipes.

    Bonus slicing sausage

    I once made too much Trumese dough for my pudding basin, so I kneaded in some ground cumin, black pepper, smoked paprika and some herb or other. I made this into a sausage shape and wrapped it well in foil before bunging it in the pressure cooker to steam with the rest of the trumese. It came out rather well.

    Nutmese

    1/2 cup raw peanuts
    1 cup cooked peanuts
    a tiny smidgen of salt (very optional)
    approx 1/3 cup water.

    Grind the raw nuts fine, mash the cooked nuts and mix with the salt. Add water and steam as above. It is easier to buy a tin of Nuttolene, but this is a useful recipe to know in case of drought.

    This quantity contains about 1250 calories, 108g fat (15g saturated), 57g protein, 35g carbohydrates (9g sugars) and 19g dietary fibre. Use sparingly!

    Notes:

    Cooking peanuts takes about 80 minutes in a pressure cooker, and up to 4 hours on a stovetop.

    I found it very difficult to get hold of a cereal coffee that did not contain chicory (which would taste foul). I used Yorzo instant original from Lima Foods, a Belgian company, which is made entirely from roasted barley and nothing else.

    My fellow British readers are probably wondering where I got the vital wheat gluten flour from. I’m afraid I get my American frinds to bring it over when they visit, but I do know that The Flourbin sells it under the name gluten powder. The original recipes all involved making the gluten from scratch and then mincing it into the nut mixture repeatedly!

    The original recipes contained stupendous amounts of salt, but we know better now, don’t we girls and boys?

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